Category Archives: Physiology

Sleep Loss Affects Health

1 Sleep and diabetes relation Experimental study found an association between sleep loss and diabetes, or impaired glucose tolerance. Impaired glucose tolerance, which is a precursor to diabetes, is manifested by glucose levels rising higher than normal and for a … Continue reading

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ERP peaks (P50,N100,MMN)

1 P50 The most positive peak between 40 and 75 msec, after the conditioning stimulus is P50. It can be elicited by either the paired click paradigm or the steady state paradigm.  Paradigm has been adapted for testing sensory gating, … Continue reading

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ERP components

ERP components are defined by following approaches Source localization Principal component analysis (PCA) Independent component analysis (ICA) Time frequency analysis In source localization techniques, component is equivalent to source localization. It find the set of single component scalp distribution that … Continue reading

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ERP (Event related potentials)

Event related potentials (ERP) are very small voltages generated in brain on response to specific events and stimuli. They are EEG changes that are time locked to sensory, motor and cognitive events. They are safe and non-invasive approach to study … Continue reading

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EOG and EMG activity of sleep stages

Fig1: Wake stage EOG and EMG activity Fig2: N1 stage EOG and EMG activity Fig3: N2 stage EOG and EMG activity Fig4: N3 stage EOG and EMG activity Fig5: REM stage EOG and EMG activity

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Neuro-circuitry and transmitters Underlying Wakefulness, NREM and REM Sleep

ARAS: ascending reticular activating system LDT: lateral dorsal tegmental PPT: pedunculopontine tegmental DR : dorsal raphe LC: locus coeruleus DA: dopaminergic VTA: ventral tegmental area 1 Wakefulness         As mention earlier, wakefulness is associated with a low-voltage/fast-frequency … Continue reading

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Physiological Changes Associated with Sleep

1) During NREM sleep and tonic REM sleep, there is a relative increase in parasympathetic activity relative to sympathetic activity. 2) During phasic REM sleep, however, there are brief surges in both sympathetic and parasympathetic activity, resulting in a high degree of … Continue reading

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